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폴 세잔의 〈대 수욕도〉에 대한 정신분석학적 고찰

A Psychoanalytic reading of Cézanne’s Large Bathers
서양미술사학회 논문집 제12집, 1999.12, 61-88 (28 pages)
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초록
Constantly conscious of connection to artistic tradition, Cezanne had a great ambition to create monumental compositions of nude figures, His bather paintings intimate a space where sexual phantasy directly meets traditional forms and compositions, which represent sexuality, constructed in the historical and cultural context of the nineteenth century. Through the ways in which Cezanne adjusted to, negotiated with or transgressed these conventions, one can glimpse at not only his anxiety and distress towards the female nude in particular - the object of his erotic phantasy - but also a different vision of sexual difference, emerging through the process of representation, What Cezanne did often looks radically different from and therefore signifies differently from the ways in which the traditional forms represented.
When we focus on the issue of sexuality (sexual identity and sexual difference), Cezanne’s motivation to have contact with artistic tradition (pose, iconography, etc.) is especially difficult to interpret. It is as if Cezanne were not a “language user” of the nineteenth-century French art world. Cezanne seems to have been distanced from the “standard” system for codifying sexual difference in his time; a time which set out cultural instructions and historical guides for representation of the female body. Cezanne adopted the traditional iconography of the female nude, constructed by old masters in a most active and obvious manner. However, he borrowed only their poses and gestures, not their attributes or the sensations habitually associated with them. When they were transposed into his work, those attributes or sensations would often be reversed or simply expelled, thereby separating them from the meanings initially associated with them.
Cezanne’s adoption of the temptress pose is a good example to explore through such concern. In attempting to re-read the ‘dreaming figure’ as T.J. Clark calls a particular figure in the temptress pose of Cezanne’s Large Batbers in Barnes Foundation, I seek to trace different ways in which he shifted certain meanings habitually attached to the traditional form which is symbolic of lust. My hypothesis is that, in Cezanne’s else, the symptomatic structure of melancholia allows him to be relatively independent of the signs and codes that the phallic order sets out for those figurative subjects. Deeply engaged in
his way of representing sexual difference, melancholia seems to have given Cezanne an access to a privileged relation with the ‘feminine dimension’ in Bracha Litchtenberg Ettinger’s terms; offering a space in which his name can be established, apart from the Father’s.
As opposed to the Barnes Bathers, which is thought to be pervaded by the castration phantasy, I propose to examine the other phantasy of the Philadelphia Bathers, Cezanne’s final Large Bathers. This painting, I believe, offers a conclusive representation on the issues of subjectivity, melancholia and feminine difference. I suggest that a structural analysis for the Philadelphia Bathers is found in Lacan’s theoretical formulation of perception in his theory of the gaze. It is not my intention to naively impose a theoretical diagram upon the pictorial structure of Cezanne’s painting, which entails more than the meanings relevant to a psychoanalytic study of the gaze. Rather, it is the mechanism of looking and its relation to subjectivity, structuring and underlying his painting that needs to be juxtaposed to Lacan’s theory of the gaze, which offers a dynamic way of apprehending the enigmatic aspects of Cezanne’s Philadelphia Bathers.
My reading of Cezanne’s work from a psychoanalytic perspective focuses on a way in which “original” anxieties emerge through the decorum of artistic tradition during the moments in which the artist’s control over his unstable psychical state loosens, thereby allowing his unconscious desire to inscribe itself into the representation. This, in this essay, is explored through the intimate relationship among the formation of subjectivity, entry into language, and the fundamental loss (of the mother), which, I think, leads Cezanne’s Large Bathers to gain access to sublimation through the semiotic realm of colour.

목차
Ⅰ. 멜랑콜리아의 프리즘으로 보는 반스 수욕도의 ‘꿈꾸는 인물’
Ⅱ. 필라델피아 수욕도: 주체, 언어 그리고 상실
Ⅲ. 필라델피아 수욕도와 라캉의 응시의 이론(the theory of the gaze)
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