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영국의 도시 공간과 현대미술

- 제2차 세계대전 이후의 런던

Urban Space and British Art in the Late 20th Century: Art and Spatial Politics in London since the Postwar Period
서양미술사학회 논문집 제21집, 2004.6, 179-218 (40 pages)
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초록
‘Why humanistic figuration has been the dominant representation after the World War Ⅱ in Britain?’ is a consistent question which I ask of which images this research. Lawrence Alloway recognised in a review of Bacon’s popes, of which images not an homage but an ‘attack’, representing a dialectic between ‘art and anti-art’. Whilst Francis Bacon addressed the male power and paternal authority, Eduardo Paolozzi engaged with ideals of womanhood and of female sexuality.
Bacon and Lucian Freud’s fragmentation of the depersonalised human image represents an attack on Man and they commonly remove all the information to deny individualism in favour of something more universal. In the case of Freud, an extreme close-up and sharp focus of portrayed people are distinguishable in the works of the 40s and the 50s. His one of greatest contributions to realism is the denial of narrative through the detailed close-up. It is quite convincing when James Hyman compares and Freud, saying “While Bacon denied specificity through blurring, Freud heightened portrait detail but increasingly denied the sitter genre details and clothing, thereby accentuating the metaphoric potential.” We perceive those figures in his paintings as not certain types but the human condition.
Frank Auerbach’s and Leon Kossoff’s works are called as the black realism. They had a tendency towards Expressionism and shared a heavy use of charcoal. Theit drawings and paintings conveyed a stifling, air-starved world peopled by spectral simulacra, that is not life but rather its shadow. The surfaces of Kossoff and Auerbach are earthy and laboured. A shared use of charcoal rather than hard pencil also gives different results. In their row emerges a shadowy black space and so do battered survivors.
The Independent Group and Pop Art, dominant in British modem Art after the 2nd World War, could be seen together in the exhibition 《This is Tomorrow》 held in 1956. It must be remembered that there is an aspect of English Brutalism that the Pop artists opposed. The human figures tend to be massive, simplified, frontal, painterly, non-individuated: the differ from one another but Jean Dubuffet is a common source for
Paoloazzi’s filtered version of Frankenstein’s Monster. Nigel Henderson produced in the mid-1950s the collages and screen prints, revealing the more tormented Modemist realism of London.
In the middle of the 20th century, among the main art critical trends influential to contemporary arts above were David Sylvester’s Modemist realism and John Berger’s Social Realism. As for the former, the Modemist realism emphasised the spatial, the dynamic and the contemporary, and sited these concerns on the body, its location and treatment. Sylvester took his critical position showing disaffection with pre-war surrealism and impatience with abstraction and suggesting an equation between Existentialism and figuration. Social realism proclaimed by Berger attacked the idealism which demanded art’s disengagement from daily life. The exhibition 《Looking Forward》 held in 1952 at the Whitechapel Art Gallery was a manifesto exhibition explicitly conceived to be accessible to the working class.
The South Bank exhibition in 1951 belonging to the Festival, of Britain an actual art event placed in the south of London. After 1945, the ideology of artistic autonomy and the distaste for abstract art became dominant and the exhibition was held in tills atmosphere. And against the formalist conventions of early postwar discourse, a role of public art in the articulation of urban spaces emerged prominently in connection with the South Bank exhibition and Henry Moore occupied a unique position in tills show. The most compelling image of the entire Festival was Powell and Moya’s Skylon and the Dome of the Discovery, which represent futuristic architecture. This architectural trend comes to be opposed by Brutalism in architecture 1960s.
Another urban space crucial for artistic activity in the 1950s is Soho. It’s attraction for London artists was due to the fact that the climate of change and uncertainty prevalent in British society in the post-war period condensed in the place. Most frequently Soho is recognised as ‘the perfect place for the misfit and the marginal,’ which the avant-garde artists such as those belonging to so-called the ‘London school’ tumed to.
Those young artists who represent the contemporary British art, called ‘yBa,’ is a certain group of young artists development is closely related with its involvement in the place called the ‘East End’ of London. Among them are Damien Hirst, Marcus Harvey, Sarah Lucas, Ron Mueck, Marc Quinn, Jenny Saville, and Gavin Turk. In this paper, realistic aspects of their works are emphasised and are accounted for in relation to British realism rooted in the works of their predecessors since the postwar period.
Rachel Whiteread’s〈House〉(1993) is highlighted as a significant work in this paper,
which represents and problematises anxiety of poverty and class struggle out of industrialisation saturated in the area of East End. This symbolic sculpture, destroyed in 1994, brought about severe debates and discussion throughout different regions in the Nation. The work itself is concerned as the very site where a work and a place, art and life converge.
Andrew Causey says, “To make the work of art an object in its own right, but separate from, objects in life, was indeed a concept that met with considerable resistance in Britain, where there was a sense that art and life were not distinct in this way.” Perhaps, ‘Britishness’ of British Art could be thought of its strong hold of the empirical sphere of life itself. Such realistic tradition is a conceptual ground on which I am concerned about the relationship between British Art since the postwar period and London, between art and spatial politics in Britain.

목차
Ⅰ. 들어가는 글
Ⅱ. 본론
Ⅲ. 나오는 글
참고문헌
Abstract
「영국의 도시 공간과 현대미술: 제2차 세계대전 이후의 런던」에 대한 질의(박일호)
박일호 선생님의 질의에 대한 답변(전영백)
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