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영국의 형식주의 비평과 블룸즈버리(Bloomsbury) 그룹의 모더니즘 작품 연구

British Formalist Criticism and the Modernist Art of Bloomsbury
美術史學 제17호, 2003.8, 241-274 (34 pages)
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초록
The formalist art criticism of Clive Bell and Roger Fry has been recognised as 'traditional modernism'. They valued modern artists whose works were unified in solid forms and structural compositions, which is equivalent to what looks to be universal and classic. An representative artist who proved to be an ideal example for their aesthetics was Paul Cezanne, whose work was highlighted in the two crucial exhibitions for Post-Impressionism in London held by Fry. One cannot undermine the British formalism's achievement contributing to the formation of modernism whose essential incentive seeks for independence of Art-'Art for Art's sake'.
The process of negation was the way suggested for attaining to the modernist goal, which was thought to remove inessential elements in art practice such as descriptive expression of literary themes or psychological state, and representation itself. Therefore what remains to us is form confirming its priority in the visual. Such form is suggested being constructed by relationships between pictorial elements in a painting, separated from explaining contents and literary associations. As a result, the formalist criticism has often been understood as a kind of aestheticism regardless of empirical experiences in human life. Against this rather simplistic apprehension of the formalists-Fry in particular, this paper attempts to take a balance by shedding light on the other side of their aesthetics: its involvement with social context and its relation to everyday life without losing its proclaimed name of 'Art'.
This is approved in the Bloomsbury group and the Omega workshop, the two major artists' groups, which Fry made in order to realise his formalist criticism in the painting (the former) and everyday objects (the latter). What is concerned in this research is, in fact, the way in which he tries to relate his theoretical formulation and art making where he himself took part in. It is due to the fact that the main purpose of this paper aims to reconsider the formalist aesthetics centering on Fry's from a standpoint of the postmodern era. Under its argument lies a sort of skepticism over a binary opposition between modernism and postmodernism, of which clear-cut division seems implausible at least in the very formation of formalist critique in Britain and the art practices drawing on it.
This project has been actually motivated by the two exhibitions on the art of Bloomsbury group and Roger Fry's artistic vision, recently held in London, which gave us a chance to look back how British formalist criticism was related to the art of Bloomsbury, bridging theory and art production. One could not expect that the modernist works of Bloomsbury and Omega workshop were good enough to realise the formalist aesthetics of Fry and Bell. Obviously, there are holes and gaps remained in the texture made of the interrelating structure of their conceptual idea and the concrete practices based on it. Nonetheless, the initial formation of formalist criticism in Britain was not so 'Modern' of which sense is rigidly contrasted to Postmodern. Rather, one could say that Fry and the formalist discourse that he ardently championed was rather open, more flexible and more related to everyday life than we habitually assume it to be under the category of Modernism.

목차
서론: 블룸즈버리에 대한 재조명
Ⅰ. ‘블룸즈버리(Bloomsbury)’ 그룹
Ⅱ. 블룸즈버리의 예술
Ⅲ. 형식주의 비평: 벨과 프라이의 미학관
Ⅳ. 영국 화단의 맥락과 블룸즈버리: 블룸즈버리 그룹의 분열과 형식주의에 대한 비판
결론: ‘Modern Art에 내재한 Postmodernism인가?’
참고문헌
Abstract
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