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미술, 과학, 과학기술

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Art, Science, Technology the Works of Naum Gabo and László Moholy-Nagy
美術史論壇 第29號, 2009.12, 297-326 (30 pages)
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초록
The great transformation of science was a leading factor in making the 20th century the greatest period of transition in the history of Western civilization. The theory of the fourth dimension, based on the space-time continuum, brought about a change in worldview; the technological civilization engendered by the Industrial Revolution sparked a paradigm shift in all areas of life, and art was no exception. In particular, geometric abstraction, which led the Modernist art movement in the first half of the 20th century, manifested a positive view of science and technology through its forms as well as in its use of materials and techniques. The geometric forms, which were an illustration of the system of rational thinking, were a visual model that proposed a mode of scientific thinking through a progressive worldview; the industrial products and machines used as materials and tools here were symbols of an advanced civilization.
Those artists engaged in experimenting with these abstract forms were technocratic utopians who believed that science and technology would bring about an ideal society: Naum Gabo (1890~1977) and Laszlo Moholy-Nagy (1895~1946) were two of the main artists representing this tendency. But despite their shared utopianism, the two men showed different attitudes in their approaches. In terms of art, it was the plastic element of ‘movement’ that most embodied the new science theory and technological civilization. Both artists pursued ‘movement’ but employed different methods for realizing it.
Gabo created metaphors for movement mostly through visual effects and even when showing real movement, he hid the mechanical devices creating the movement, presenting only the pure forms as works of art. Meanwhile, Moholy-Nagy not only embraced engineering technology in creating movement, he also presented mechanical devices themselves as part of his artwork. If science for Gabo was a model of art and technology was merely its means, Moholy-Nagy regarded science and technology as art itself. While Gabo was an idealist who applied the scientific mode of thought to art, Moholy-Nagy was a positivist who set out to present technology as it was and merged it with the sphere of art.
Thus, the works of Gabo and Moholy-Nagy reveal the development of modern science as it transformed from idealism to positivism. Their works are like an artistic index unveiling the realities of an age in which science was inverted into technology. At the same time they call to mind the path of Modernism’s germination, abstract art. The works also foretell the history of how the world of perfect logic that Mondrian and other like-minded artists dreamed of in the early 20th century became reified into Kinetic Art or Minimalism in the latter part of the 20th century. This history of reversal, in which the art that was driven by a realm of ‘idea’ based on a scientific worldview represented by geometry is reverted by technology back into ‘reality’, into a world of commodities, is a warning that the West’s project of modernity, defined by a scientific worldview, may be a ‘decline’ and not an ‘evolution’.

목차
Ⅰ. 여는 글
Ⅱ. 과학적 사유의 모델로서의 조각: 나움 가보
Ⅲ. 과학기술로서의 미술: 라즐로 모홀리 나기
Ⅳ. 닫는 글
참고문헌
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참고문헌 (24)

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  1. Rosalind Krauss , 1997 , 현대조각의 흐름 , 예경

  2. 박신의 , 2002 , 멀티미디어 아티스트 라즐로 모홀리나기 , 디자인하우스

  3. Walter Benjamin , 1936 , The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction, in Modern Art and Modernism: A Critical Anthology , Harper and Row : 217 ~ 220

  4. Jack Burnham , 1968 , Beyond Modern Sculpture: The Effects of Science and Technology on the Sculpture of This Century , George Braziller

  5. Joseph Harris Caton , 1980 , The Utopian Vision of Moholy-Nagy , UMI Research Press

  6. Lee Congdon , 1991 , Exile and Social Thought: Hungarian Intellectuals in Germany and Austria 1919~1933 , Princeton Univ. Press

  7. Alain Findeli , 1988 , László Moholy-Nagy, Alchemist of Transparency , Structurist : 5 ~ 11

  8. Naum Gabo , 1948 , On Constructive Realism, in Three Lectures on Modern Art , Philosophical Library : 65 ~ 87

  9. Naum Gabo , 1957 , Gabo: Constructions, Sculptures, Paintings, Drawings, Engravings , Harvard Univ. Press

  10. Naum Gabo , 1969 , The Kinetic Construction of 1920 , Studio International : 89 ~

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