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Which Republicanism?: John Adams v. John Taylor Revisited

Vol.34, 2011.11, 29-54 (26 pages)
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Abstract
1787년 연방헌법이 채택되기 직전 간행된 『아메리카 연합국가들의 정부 헌법에 대한 옹호』 1권에서 존 애덤스는 튀르고의 단원제 정부론에 맞서 ‘자연 귀족’의 상원과 인민의 하원으로 구성된 양원제 의회 및 입법, 행정, 사법의 삼권분립을 구현한 견제와 균형의 고전적 혼합정체론을 주장하였고, 연방헌법이 결국은 자신의 이론을 구체화 한 것으로 보았다. 존 테일러의 『합중국 정부의 원리들과 정책에 대한 연구』(1814)는 애덤스와 연방주의자들에 대한 제퍼슨주의자의 신랄한 비판이었다. 그는 현대 사회가 고대나 중세와는 본질적으로 다른 ‘제3시대’ 귀족정 -‘동산재산가’가 지배하는- 에 직면해 있기 때문에, 애덤스 식 처방은 시대착오적일 뿐 아니라 압제적 귀족정의 부활을 부추길 우려까지 있다고 주장하였다. 그의 해결책은 각 주(州)의 권리를 최대한 보장하는 느슨한 연합헌장 식 정체였다. 최근 고든 우드는 애덤스와 테일러를 각각 ‘고전적 정치의 종말’과 새로운 아메리카적 정치이념을 대변하는 인물로 규정하였다. 하지만 그 이면에는 독립혁명기로부터 현재에 이르기까지 미국인들이 ‘예외적이고 자유주의적인 합의’라는 것을 유지해 왔다는, 스스로의 정체성에 관한 ‘상식’이 존재하고 있었다. 존 포각의 ‘마키아벨리언 모멘트’가 미국에서 그렇게 오랫동안 논쟁의 대상이 되었던 것도 바로 그 때문이다. 공화주의 대 자유주의 논쟁은 이제 미국인들에게 과연 그들의 역사적 정체성이 어떤 것이었나/것인가에 대한 새로운 의문을 던지고 있다.

In the first volume of his A Defence of the Constitutions of Government of the United States of America, published immediately before the adoption of the Constitution in 1787, John Adams, against Turgot who favored the single National Assembly, insisted that America should preserve the classical mixed constitution of checks and balances which consisted of the dual assembly of the senate and the representative, and the system of separation of powers among the legislative, the executive and the judiciary. Later he regarded the Constitution as an embodiment of his theory. John Taylor of Caroline"s An Inquiry into the Principles and Policy of the Government of the United States (1814) was a severe Jeffersonian critique against Adams and the Federalists. He asserted that the prescription Adams suggested was not only behind the times but would encourage the revival of tyrannical aristocracy because the present society faced a so-called "third age" aristocracy, dominated by "paper wealth" and essentially different from those of both ancient and medieval. Taylor"s solution was to keep the loose Articles of Confederation in order to secure to the utmost the rights of the States. Recently Gordon S. Wood regarded Adams and Taylor as the representatives of the "end of classical politics" and a new American political ideology respectively. Such a point of view, however, assumed the "common sense" on the character of America"s own identity that from the times of the Declaration of Independence to the present there was consistently an "exceptional liberal consensus. " It is owing to the very "common sense" that around John Pocock"s Machiavellian Moment (1975) the heated debates on Republicanism in early America have been not ceased for a long time. Now those debates ask Americans a new question of what was and is their historical identity.

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References (17)

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  1. Adams, John , 2010 , A Defence of the Constitutions of Government of the United States of America, against the Attack of M. Turgot in His Letter to Dr. Price, Dated the Twenty-Second Day of March, 1778. 3 vols. London , The Lawbook Exchange

  2. Adams, John , , The Works of John Adams, Second President of the United States: with a Life of the Author, Notes and Illustrations, by his Grandson Charles Francis Adams. 10 vols , Little, Brown : 1850 ~ 1856

  3. Adams, John Quincy , 1980 , John Adams, intro. Peter Shaw. 2 vols , Chelsea House

  4. Banning, Lance , 1978 , The Jeffersonian Persuasion: Evolution of a Party Ideology , Cornell University Press

  5. Bradford, M. E , 1977 , John Taylor, Arator: Being a Series of Agricultural Essays, Practical and Political, in Sixty-Four Numbers, Ed , Liberty Classics

  6. Pocock, J. G. A , 1989 , Fra Toscana e Stati Uniti: Il discorso politico nell'età della costituzione americana , Olschki

  7. Pocock, J. G. A , 2000 , Machiavellian Moments and Reply , New York Review of Books 47 (16)

  8. Pocock, J. G. A , 2011 , 마키아벨리언 모멘트 전2권 , 나남

  9. Shalhope, Robert , 1980 , John Taylor of Caroline: Pastoral Republican , University of South Carolina Press

  10. Sheldon, Garrett Ward , 2008 , Jr. The Liberal Republicanism of John Taylor of Caroline , Fairleigh Dickinson University Press

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