백제 미륵사지 석탑 사리공양품의 보석과 교역

International Trade and Gems Found in the Śarīra Deposits in the Mireuksa Stone Pagoda of Baekje
신숙
미술사연구 제31호, 2016.12, 29-57 (29 pages)
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초록
A variety of objects found with the śarīra deposits in the Baekje-era Mireuksa Stone Pagoda at Iksan in Jeollabuk-do Province have been verified as offerings. These objects are thought to have been offered by those who participated in the śarīra enshrinement rituals, and appear to be possessions that were highly valued in their lives. They include gemstones like quartz, pearl, agate, jade and amber. Particularly noteworthy are over 800 pearls, which had very rarely been excavated prior to this, and some 62 pieces of quartz separately held inside the gold śarīra reliquary in the shape of a jar along with the broken pieces of inner glass bottle, both of which were contained inside the gilt-bronze, jar-shaped śarīra reliquary. This paper aims to examine the reasons and background which led to such large quantities of quartz and pearls being deposited inside the stone pagoda and to consider the conditions of international trade in relation to the gems’ origins.
Śarīra enshrinement is one of the most important rituals in Buddhism, and thus śarīra containers and offerings were created using the highest-quality materials and skills. Gemstones of timeless strength, beauty and rare value would have been considered appropriate materials for śarīra reliquaries or offerings, and indeed, gems were a crucial part of the reliquary at Mireuksa Stone Pagoda. Pearls, also called myeongju (明珠) at the time, had long since before been favored as gems that symbolized the highest authority and position in both the East and West. The pearls recovered from the Mireuksa Stone Pagoda are the earliest, tangible examples that we know, considering that the pagoda is dated to 639. However, the large quantity of the pearls suggests that pearls could have been used in decorations predating the Mireuksa Stone Pagoda, which is also supported by the records of the early 5th century text in Samguksagi (三國史記, History of the Three Kingdoms) containing a reference to pearls.
Pearls were presumed to have been produced on the southern coast of the Korean Peninsula. However, based on textual records and given circumstances, there is a slightly higher possibility that pearls were brought in from Japan or Southeast Asia during the Baekje period. The offering of pearls at Mireuksa Temple is without precedent, and reviewed in the context of the queen, a member of the Sataek (沙乇) family and a patron of the temple. The queen belonged to one of Baekje’s prominent families and wielded a tremendous amount of power. It is presumed that the Sataek family had the authority to involve themselves in maritime trade, and a focus on that possibility provides the background for understanding how such large quantities of pearls came into their possession. The queen built Mireuksa Temple toward the end of the reign of King Mu (武王, r. 600-641) as a display of her wealth and power while seeking to make a new leap forward.
Quartz is one of the representative gems that can be found in Korea, and is mined throughout the Gyeongsang-do and Jeolla-do provinces. Processing techniques for quartz began developing in the Three Kingdoms period, and quartz was newly adopted in decorating Buddhist artworks. The clear and bright quartz commonly known as rock crystal was used to make śarīra bottles, while rare gemstones like amethyst were used as substitutes for śarīra. The production of quartz śarīra bottles continued throughout the Unified Silla, Goryeo, and Joseon periods and established itself as a significant feature in the tradition of Korea’s śarīra reliquaries.

목차
Ⅰ. 머리말
Ⅱ. 미륵사지 석탑 사리구와 보석
Ⅲ. 보석의 의미와 상징
Ⅳ. 원석의 산지와 보석 장식
Ⅴ. 맺음말
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