조선시대 불교 의식과 승려의 소임 분화

- 甘露圖와 문헌 기록을 중심으로

Buddhist Rituals and the Division of Monks’ Roles during the Joseon Period : A Study Focusing on Buddhist Gamnodo (甘露圖) Paintings and Related Literary Records
미술사연구 제31호, 2016.12, 253-291 (39 pages)
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The popularization of rituals in the Joseon period brought various changes to Buddhist temples. Key examples include the evolution of main buildings from symbolic spaces representing the world of the Buddha to venues for meeting the demands of various rituals, a process that included the installation of an interior ceremonial altar; and the formation of inner courtyards around the main Buddha halls(主佛殿) and pavilions to create outdoor ritual spaces. As rituals came to account for a greater proportion of religious activity, such physical changes were accompanied by operational changes. Ritual texts published from the 16th century confirm the emergence of separate ritual duties outside the everyday organization of the temple. Rituals such as that for the deliverance of the creatures of water and land(水陸齋) and that of preparatory cultivation(預修齋) required several days of preparation. Many people, from both the Buddhist clergy and laity, took part in these preparations; while some temples may have been able to rely solely on their own members, in most cases collaboration based on monastic lineages and other relationships was required. Efforts to standardize sporadically conducted procedures and acquire equipment needed, while systematically arranging the duties associated with preparing rituals and relating the virtues required of ritual monks and the meanings of the procedures involved, were an important part of Buddhist ritual texts published during the Joseon period.
Gamnodo, a genre of painting particular to this period, contain scenes showing Buddhist rituals being prepared using the full resources of a temple and conducted in accordance with legitimate procedures. 16th to 18th Gamnodo prominently show both monks performing ritual dances and chants, and a monk standing in front of the food-offering altar, holding food and leading the ritual. Texts such as Jineon geongong(眞言勸供), Suwoldoryang gonghwabulsa yeohwan binju mongjung mundap(水月道場空花佛事如幻賓主夢中問答) and Unsudan (雲水壇) tell us that the monk in front of the food-offering altar was a jeungmyeong beopsa(證明法師). In his hands, he holds a meal bowl containing water and a ceremonial implement symbolizing willow branches; these have their origins in the “willow branch water purification technique.” As willow branch water purification became a core procedure in various food offering ceremonies, paintings came to show practical items such as brushes and spoons instead of willow branches.
Dramatic scenes showing the purification of temples by sprinkling water and procedures for transforming devotional water into gamno (sweet dew, 甘露) disappear from gamnodo produced in Seoul and Gyeonggido Province in the 19th century. Gamnodo depicting enlarged rituals, like that held at Heungguksa Temple at Mt. Suraksan, show processions in which devotional water is brought to the altar in a large bowl, and events festooned with flags bearing Buddhist names and longevity tablets, like scenes from a performance. This study examines the conducting of rituals, division of related roles, and understanding of these roles, based on the 1496 text Jineon geongong(眞言勸供), the monk Heoeungdang Bou (1509~1565)"s Suwoldoryang gonghwabulsa yeohwan binju mongjung mundap(水月道場空花佛事如幻賓主夢中問答), Cheongheo Hyujeong (1520~1604)"s Unsudan(雲水壇), the texts Ojong beomeumjip(五種梵音集; 1661) and Cheonji myeongyang suryukjaeui beomeumsanbojip(天地冥陽水陸齋儀梵音刪補集, 1721), and anthologies of works by monks such as Woljeo Doan (1638~1715) and Chimgoeng Hyeonbyeon (1616~1684).
The division of roles was one feature of temple management following the popularization of Buddhist rituals. Roles were assigned to members of temples by officials such as yuna(維那), but specialist monks were also invited from outside. Hwaju(化主) were in charge not only of the financial aspects of soliciting funds from donors but of inviting specialist monks. While rituals had previously been conducted primarily through meditation or contemplation, greater importance was now placed in equipment at the venue, with an emphasis on ritual composition. In addition to roles such as beopsa (法師) and hoeju (會主) to deliver sermons, jeungmyeong (證明), and byeongbeop (秉法), a number of jakbeop (作法) monks such as hwaseung (畵僧), seogi (書記) and beompaeseung (梵唄僧) played roles in decorating indoor areas and altars erected outdoors, creating a suitably magnificent ambience at the ritual venue. Mobilization of all temple personnel and specialization of monks are illustrated in gamnodo, a genre particular to the Joseon period. In terms of methodology, this approach facilitates a multi-faceted understanding of gamnodo by exploring the interrelations between interpretation of written records and paintings.

Ⅰ. 머리말
Ⅱ. 감로도의 의식 장면과 그 의미
Ⅲ. 불교의식집과 승려의 소임 분화
Ⅳ. 맺음말
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