The genre of f lower and bird painting in the gongbi (工筆) style was led by Chen Zhifu (1896~1962) of Zhejiang, in southern China, and Yu Feian (1888-1959) of Beijing, in the north of the country, to the extent where the phrase “Chen in the south and Yu in the north” (南陳北于) was coined. Meanwhile, recent progress in the study of Liu Kuiling (1885~1967) has served to highlight his importance. It can be said that these three artists effectively led the field of 20th-century Chinese gongbi flower and bird painting. As the first generation of modern Chinese painters of the genre, each of the three formed his own school and remains influential today. Gongbi flower and bird paintings are colorful works painted using slender brush strokes. This genre endured a long period of exclusion and stagnation from the Yuan dynasty, when scholar artists became dominant and gongbi flower and bird paintings were eclipsed by those painted in the freehand, suggestive xieyi (寫意) style. In fact, gongbi flower and bird paintings, a non-mainstream genre, only survived due to popular demand for them as decoration for craft items. Within this broad historical context of flower and bird paintings, gongbi versions began receiving attention, for the first time since the Song dynasty, in conjunction with the coexistence of conservatism and innovation that characterized Chinese painting in the 20th century. There are various reasons for the new styles and techniques introduced to gongbi flower and bird paintings amid this new attention, but this study determines that one of the most significant factors was a process of artistic negotiation with Japan. Chen Zhifu"s period of study in Japan, and the designs he learned there, played a decisive role in forming his gongbi flower and bird painting style, while Yu Feian and Liu Kuiling were able to encounter Japanese art at joint Chinese-Japanese exhibitions held at the time. Chen, Yu and Liu each ref lected Japanese painting styles differently in their works, in terms of subject matter, technique and composition. The appearance of previously absent animal paintings tells us that examination of this genre, once thought to have been produced only by painters of the Lingnan School, must now also be extended to include the treaty port of Tianjin. Meanwhile, Chen showed signs of direct influence from Japan, borrowing unaltered elements from Japanese painting albums. The study also examines how the tarashikomi technique, a major characteristic of Japanese flower and bird painting, was used and transformed by all three artists. Further inf luence from Japanese techniques was also found throughout other aspects of Chinese gongbi flower and bird paintings, including depiction of animal fur and print-style flowers. It can be said that Japanese influence generally came in the form of decorative elements from the Rinpa school the painting style of the Kyoto school, itself descended from the Maruyama-Shijō school. The author was also able to perceive influence from painters who graduated Tokyo School of Fine Arts, founded Japan Art Institute and developed the Sin-nihonga Movement. This gives a sense that comprehensive study of the character of color gongbi paintings in East Asia, and of related exchange between China, Korea and Japan, is needed.
Ⅰ. 머리말Ⅱ. 20세기 중국화단과 공필화조화Ⅲ. 20세기 전반의 中·日 미술교섭Ⅳ. 20세기 중국 공필화조화에 보이는 일본 회화의 영향Ⅴ. 맺음말참고문헌<Abstract>
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