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Cranberry Juice to Reduce Bladder Biofilms and Infection in Geriatric and Spinal Cord Injured Patients with Dysfunctional Bladders

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Cranberry Juice to Reduce Bladder Biofilms and Infection in Geriatric and Spinal Cord Injured Patients with Dysfunctional Bladders

Cranberry Juice to Reduce Bladder Biofilms and Infection in Geriatric and Spinal Cord Injured Patients with Dysfunctional Bladders

Gregor Reid Patrick Potter Dominique Lam Diny Warren Michael Borrie Keith Hayes

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There is evidence to suggest that cranberry juice supplements improve the health of the urinary tract by inhibiting the binding of fimbriated uropathogenic E. coli to the bladder mucosa. In patients with neurogenic bladders, urinary tract infections (UTI) are particularly common and often poorly managed by antibiotic treatment. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial was undertaken on 29 geriatric and spinal cord injured patients with dysfunctional bladders. They received three times daily at mealtimes a 4 oz bottle of cranberry juice (Ocean Spray Cranberries, USA) or a specially prepared synthetic placebo drink. Two episodes of UTI arose in week one of cranberry intake and none thereafter, compared to four episodes of UTI in 4 placebo patients in weeks four, six and 10. Mean bacterial adhesion counts on bladder cells of the patients rose during the first month of treatment in 71% of the placebo patients compared to only 31% of cranberry patients (p<0.001). The difference persisted to some extent for the second and third months. Bacterial adhesion levels correlated with culture findings (higher adhesion and higher viable counts in urine) (p<0.001), positive leukocyte nitrite tests (136±131 bacteria per cell versus 52±86 in negative tests) (p<0.001), and higher white blood cell counts (>10) per high power field (126±125 versus 48±85 bacteria per cell) (p<0.001). E. coli was the most frequently isolated organism (40% samples) followed by K. pneumoniae (17%) and a number of other uropathogens. Group B Streptococci, and coagulase negative Staphylococcus were recovered from urine in 4 samples but were not associated with any red blood cell presence. The daily intake of cranberry juice, in amounts which are not detrimental to long term compliance, appeared to have a role in reducing the risk of bladder colonization and infection in a highly susceptible patient population.

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Abstract

INTRODUCTION

MATERIALS AND METHODS

RESULTS

DISCUSSION

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

REFERENCES

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