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[학술저널]

중종대(中宗代) 사대인식(事大認識)의 변화

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중종대(中宗代) 사대인식(事大認識)의 변화

대례의(大禮議)에 대한 별행(別行) 파견 논의를 중심으로

Changes regarding ‘Perception of Sadae’(事大認識) that became apparent during the reign of King Jungjong - Examination of Discussions over the issue of dispatching a special envoy(別行) about the Grand ceremony(大禮議) in Ming(明) dynasty’s court

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The objective set in this article, is to inspect how the discussions continued over the issue of dispatching an envoy to the Grand Ceremony(大禮議) of the Ming dynasty court(which has been considered as an important event that happened during the middle period of the Ming dynasty), and to examine what was the government officials' general perception of Joseon's Sadae(事大) in the 16th century. The question that should be addressed, is with what kind of values and standards that they proceeded with diplomatic functions and negotiations. Results of such examination revealed the fact that a new perception of the concept of Sadae(事大) centered on the Daegan(臺諫) officials was emerging at the time.
The concept of Sadae(事大) usually referred to a relationship in which the smaller country(小國) expressed goodwill and friendship by dispatching envoys to the bigger country(大國), maintaining diplomatic communications and also the norm of international order surrounding them. Yet the Daegan(臺諫) officials perceived the concept of Sadae(事大) as more of a moral courtesy based upon the teachings of classic texts. So they started to argue that before dispatching an envoy to a diplomatic function arranged by the Chinese government, the nature of such function or other related events must be ascertained, and envoys should be dispatched only when the nature of such function or the surrounding environment was proved legitimate and justified. At the same time, the ethics determining the relationship between King and the vassals started to recognize the concept of justice(義) more importantly than the order of the King, and this kind of ethic made them believe that the Joseon government, as a vassal, should be able to criticize and actively provide suggestions to China, the 'King' country, in the name of Justice. Surely in reality, the officials could not appeal directly to the Emperor of the Ming dynasty, but at least they maintained their position of not allowing envoy dispatches that were not justified.
This kind of attitude toward the concept of Sadae(事大) was related to the notion of 'The Debt that Joseon owed to Ming, for rescuing Joseon at Japanese invation of Korea in 1592'〔the so-called, Jaejo-ji-eun(再造之恩) sentiment〕. The argument that one should pay respect to the Chinese court only when the nature of a diplomatic function was justified, and not pay respect when it is not justified, was an argument where values were imposed upon diplomatic relationships. This argument was strongly in favor of 'paying debts', and not forgetting that someone helped them. Even when the national crises arisen by the war with the Japanese were over, the aforementioned 'Debt-paying' sentiment remained strongly among many Joseon officials, and the reason it maintained its influences for such a long time was because it was based upon a strong perception toward the concept of 'Sadae' which unlike before maintained the issue of justice as a priority. The 16th century was a time period when the perception of Sadae(事大) came to be firmly based upon the issue of justice. And this perception was put in a conflicting position(拮抗) with other practical opinions viewing the foreign situations. It was a transitional period, in terms of the diplomatic meaning of the Joseon dynasty's relationship with Ming dynasty.

목차

머리말
1. 대례의(大禮議)와 그에 대한 별행파견 논의
2. 중종대 사대인식(事大認識)의 분화
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