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[학술저널]

사회주의 ‘조선의 심장’ 평양의 동아시아 도시로의 변화 가능성

  • 학술저널

사회주의 ‘조선의 심장’ 평양의 동아시아 도시로의 변화 가능성

The Possibility of Pyeongyang, the City of ‘Socialism with a Korean Heart’, Becoming an East Asian City

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This study analyzes in a sequential manner the changes which took place in the status of Pyeongyang after liberation in 1945, the features of the reconstruction which occurred after the Korean War, and the changes that have taken place since the emergence of the Juche ideology. In order to highlight the political significance of Pyeongyang during each individual period, the timeframe for this study was based on political rather than construction landmarks. What’s more, based on the results of these analyses, an attempt was made to uncover the likelihood of a future change being effectuated in the symbolic nature of Pyeongyang.
To this end, this study analyzed the various construction projects, memorial buildings, and statues built in Pyeongyang from liberation in 1945 to the present in order to derive some conclusions about the symbolism of Pyeongyang. First, in the period which ensued immediately after liberation, Pyeongyang functioned as the symbol for the popular democratic revolution, and as the cradle of democracy. A look at the urban design and architecture of Pyeongyang following the reconstruction of the city after the Korean War reveals that the city was reborn as a socialist international city. Although Pyeongyang in the 1950s was a socialist city much like Moscow, changes in the global political situation and the emergence of the Juche ideology had the effect of turning Pyeongyang into the symbol of Juche.
The planned city of Pyeongyang began to attempt to reach out to the outside world from the mid 1980s onwards, with the climax of these efforts coming in the form of the 13th World Festival of Youth and Students staged in the North Korean capital in 1989. However, the subsequent collapse of the socialist bloc had the effect of throwing North Korea into crisis, and Pyeongyang soon found itself as the poster child for the notion of ‘our nation first’. Kim Ilseong’s death in 1994 and the North-South Korean Summit held on June 15, 2000 provided North Korea with opportunities to overcome this crisis. This was a period in which Kim Ilseong’s teachings as well as architecture and statues denoting a wish for peace and unification began to appear in Pyeongyang.
Although the winds of reform and opening are currently blowing in Pyeongyang, these have yet to swirl to the point where the existing symbolism can be overcome. More time will be needed before a new symbol of actual reforms and opening in Pyeongyang can emerge. Thus, the road towards the unification of the Korean peninsula and lasting peace in East Asia will be well embarked upon once Pyeongyang becomes not only the ‘heart of North Korea’ but also an “East Asian city”.

목차

Ⅰ. 머리말
Ⅱ. 해방 직후 인민민주주의혁명과 민주기지의 근거지 평양
Ⅲ. 사회주의건설기와 주체시대의 평양
Ⅳ. 개혁개방시대와 동아시아 도시로의 변화 가능성
Ⅴ. 맺음말
〈ABSTRACT〉

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