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[학술저널]

  • 학술저널

김형목(독립기념관)

이 논문을 2019-10-03 에 이용했습니다.

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초록

서울에서 전개된 계몽운동은 이곳 유지신사들에게 신선한 ‘자극제’로 다가왔다. 대한자강회ㆍ대한협회 직산지회나 기호흥학회 목천지회원 활동은 이를 반증한다. 주요활동가는 지희열ㆍ원긍연ㆍ민재기 등이었다. 천안인민대의제ㆍ직산의무교육회도 이들에 의하여 주도되었다.
대표적인 교육기관은 경위학교ㆍ대동학교ㆍ노동야학 등이었다. 일부는 의무교육 일환으로 운영되었다. 특히 야학은 수학기회 확대뿐만 아니라 현실인식을 심화시키는 밑거름이었다. 직산은 야학생만 300여 명에 달할 정도로 대단한 호응 속에서 운영되었다.
교육과정은 신ㆍ구학을 절충한 초등교육에 치중되었다. 주요 교과목은 국어ㆍ역사ㆍ수신ㆍ창가ㆍ체조 등이었다. 심신을 단련하는 「권학가」나 병식체조는 상무정신 고취로 귀결되었다. 창가는 단순한 음악이 아니라 학생들에게 ‘明心寶鑑’이었다. 교육 내실화는 교과과정 개편과 명예교사의 열성 등에 의하여 이루어졌다.
연합운동회는 근대교육의 필요성과 아울러 주민들 유대감을 결속시키는 현장이었다. 학교운영비 모금에 대한 자발적ㆍ경쟁적인 의연금 동참은 이를 반증한다. 식후 행사인 연설회 등은 건전한 생활문화 조성과 건설적인 여론을 형성하는 토론장이었다. 변화에 부응한 새로운 민중문화는 이러한 과정에서 창출되었다.
반면 일부 지방관은 학교설립을 핑계로 불법행위를 마다하지 않았다. 더욱이 일어학교를 운영하는 등 일제침략에 방조하는 경우도 있었다. 근대교육에 대한 부정적인 현지인 반응은 이와 무관하지 않다. 하지만 현실인식 심화는 민족의식ㆍ항일정신으로 계승되었다. 이는 일제강점기 민족해방운동 밑거름으로 작용하였다. 민족운동사상 근대교육의 역사적인 의의는 바로 여기에 있다.

The mass-education drive which developed in Seoul served as a fresh stimulant for the Korean patriots in Cheonan area wishing for revitalizing reform. This fact is verified by the activities of the members of Jiksan branch of DaehanjaganghoiㆍDaehanhyeobhoi and Mokcheon branch of Gihoheunghakhoi which were the societies for the mass-education. The leading activists were Hoi-Yeol Ji, Geung-Yeon Won, Jae-Gi Min, etc. and Cheonan representative system by the people and Jiksan compulsory education system were led by them.
The model educational institutions were Gyeongwi School, Daedong School, evening classes for the workingmen, etc. Some of them were run as a part of compulsory education. Especially, evening classes made a sacrifice of themselves for the increase of harvest opportunity as well as deepening the recognition of the realities of life. Jiksan was operated under people’s good response and the number of the students attending the evening class reached 300.
The course of study laid stress upon elementary education treating of modern sciences and the old learning. The main subjects were the Korean language, history, moral training, singing, gymnastics, etc. The songs encouraging learning to train the students’ mind and body and gymnastics of military way were to infuse militaristic spirit into the hearts of the students. Singing was not the simple music but wise sayings of the ancients for the students. To make education substantial was performed by revamping the education system and the honorary teachers’ devotion.
The united sports meeting was the very spot to emphasize the necessity of modern education and to unite the strong bonds of the residents. This is proved by their voluntary donations for the school operation. The speech meeting, which was the event after the sports meeting, was the open forum to make for sound life and culture and to form constructive public opinion. The new culture of the mass of the people to keep up with social changes was created in this course. On the other hand, some local civil servants didn’t mind to be engaged in the illegal activities on the pretext of founding a new school. What is worse, there was a case that they operated a Japanese-type school and helped the invasive activities of Japanese imperialism. This concerns the negative reaction of the natives to modern education. However, their recognition of the realities of life deepened and was succeeded to national consciousness and anti-Japanese spirit. Also it worked as a foundation for the campaign for liberation of the people during Japanese colonial rule. In the history of the campaign for liberation of the people, the historical significance of modern education lies in this point.

목차

1. 머리말
2. 계몽단체 활동과 인식변화
3. 교육운동 전개와 실태
4. 근대교육사상 위치
5. 맺음말
참고문헌
국문요약
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