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최재인(서울대학교)

이 논문을 2019-12-04 에 이용했습니다.

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초록

For a long time, America was regarded as a white men’s country. Even though native Americans and African Americans have resided as long as whites in the Unted States, they were not esteemed as fellow citizens by whites until the World War II. Through the World War II, the Cold War and the Civil Rights Movement, racism , racial practices, and the national identity of the Unite States suffered great change. It was the beginning of multiculturalism in the United States.
This article points three features of American multiculturalism. First, the most important driving force of American multiculturalism came from the civil rights movement. Therefore, the opposition of the American multiculturalism is racism and Eurocentrism not assimilation. Integration and assimilation has been pursued by colored people as a way to be equal citizen with whites and a procedure to make a social and economic advancement. Historically, the assimilation has paved way for the multiculturalism in the United States.
Second, American multiculturalism should be considered in the context of international society. The World War II and the Cold War stimulated white Americans to reflect their own racism. And a hostile foreign policy or a war against a specific country could be a barrier to the development of multi¬culturalism which seek to friendly relationship among various groups with different racial/national or cultural backgrounds.
Third, the social, economic, and cultural hegemony of white middle class has kept going on with the rising of multiculturalism discourses. The centrifugal power of multiculturalism developed with the strong centripetal force of white middle class.
Multiculturalism has changed the norms and ideals relating with race in the United States. Multiculturalism has encouraged racial/national minorities and women to have more confidence and self-pride. But these historical social background of multiculturalism is rarely mentioned and almost forgotten. As for the multiculturalism, it has different meanings according to the debaters. Some conservatives consider the multiculturalism as a kind of ethnocentrism that could be a harm to the unity of the country. Some radicals think that multiculturalsim hides the unequal situation and avoids to face the social and economic problems. These days, the most steady and ardent advocates are the corporations. With them, multiculturalism increasingly represents various life styles or tastes according to racial/national or gender difference, not social or economic inequality. The meaning of multiculturalism is changing, which is dependent on the racial relations, foreign policies, business marketing strategies, and international circumstances.

목차

I. 서론
II. 동화 정책과 다문화주의
III. 세계적인 구경거리가 되었던 미국의 인종주의
IV. 아프리카계 미국인의 민권 운동
V. ‘제국’으로의 발전과 다문화주의
VI. 다문화주의의 다면성
VII. 결론
Abstract

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