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[학술저널]

Sunureum as a Traditional Commoning in Jeju

  • 학술저널

Sunureum as a Traditional Commoning in Jeju

Reinterpretation of Jeju’s Livestock Culture

JAKYUNG KIM(Jeju National University)

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초록

People of Jeju have survived typical geographical and natural conditions of an island. During the 17th and 18th centuries, in particular, the harsh living conditions dotted with a series of severe droughts and typhoons, which made it difficult for Jeju people to carry on farming in limited space, forced them to exhibit wisdom to use commons. The current study has examined the livelihood of Jeju people in a concrete way, especially their life-world through the livestock culture focusing on their farming practices. Cattle were indispensible for plowing, treading soil, and threshing. During the agricultural off-season, however, the cattle were grazed in common through a livestock gye, which was an association autonomously formed to utilize their labor force of individual farm households in more effective ways. Based on mutual trust built among gye members who voluntarily joined the association, they take turns in taking care of the cattle by setting up self-governing rules. The livestock gye does not have room for free riders. And as a result, the labor to be put in for cattle herding could be used more effectively in other tasks. Besides, they laid down rules for utilizing and managing the village pasture as well as agreements for reciprocally distributing profits from fodder grass and firewood collected from the common pasture. Within the village, there were other gyes for various purposes including weeding, tableware, and rice, intricately intertwined with one another. That is, multi-layered network of gye has been created in the village. The characteristic of Jeju commons is that this tightly woven network is formed through the organization called gye. Gye is a living system indigenous to Jeju. Through the gye system, people built social relationships with other people or nature, creating a reciprocal network. Through the mutual aids, reciprocity, solidarity and cooperation, caring and consideration and social network among village people, a custom and culture called ‘sunureum’ was developed. ‘Sunureum culture’ or ‘sunureum network’ can be the commonistic living culture that discloses the peculiarity of Jeju.

목차

Introduction
Commons that Constitutes the Livelihood of Man
Jeju’s Livestock Practice and Sunureum
Features and Implications of Jeju Commons Based on Sunureum Culture
Conclusion
References

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