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고객경험속성의 조절효과를 중심으로

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초록

최근의 서비스 마케팅 문헌은 서비스 조직의 경쟁력 향상의 방편으로 서비스 고객에게 관심을 집중하고 있고 있는 실정이다. 특히, 서비스 고객은 부분적 종업원으로 인식될 수 있기 때문에 고객들은 서비스 조직에 대해 시민행동을 나타낼 수 있으며 이를 통해서 서비스 조직은 추가적 비용 없이 경쟁력을 향상시킬 수 있다. 연구 1에서는 서비스 조직과 고객간의 교환관계에 초점을 맞추어 고객시민행동의 선행변수로서 고객몰입, 지각된 고객지원, 고객동일시를 제시했으며, 특히 지각된 고객지원의 경우에는 보상, 공정성지각, 자율성을 선행변수로 추가적으로 제안하였다. 대학생을 대상으로 한 실증분석 결과 8개의 가설중 7개가 지지되어 서비스 조직은 종업원과 마찬가지로 서비스 고객을 적극적으로 관리해야 함을 이해할 수 있었다. 또한, 연구 2를 통해서 서비스 고객의 경험 속성이 고객시민행동의 선행변수들에 차별적인 영향력을 미치고 있는지를 검정하였다. 분석결과 고경험 집단의 경우 선행변수들이 고객시민행동에 더욱 강한 영향력을 미치고 있음을 확인할 수 있었다. 따라서 서비스 조직은 고객들을 경험정도에 따라 차별적으로 관리해야 함을 이해할 수 있었다.

There is a growing concern about service customers as a way of improving the competitiveness of a service organization. As service customers can be seen as partial employees, customers can exert citizenship behavior toward a service organization. Therefore, a service organization can improve its performance without additional costs. Organizational researchers have argued for the importance of relationships between service organizations and employees based on social exchange and norm of reciprocity (Blau, 1964). However, little marketing research has examined the exchange relationships between service organizations and customers. The present study attempts to investigate the effects of perceived customer support on customer citizenship behavior. In addition, this study examines antecedents of perceived customer support.In Study 1, we suggest customer commitment, perceived customer support, and customer identification as antecedents of customer citizenship behavior that deals with the exchange relationship between the service organization and customers. Additionally, we hypothesize that rewards, justice perception, and autonomy are positively related to perceived customer support. Respondents were 297 students from a large university who participated as part of an extra-credit opportunity. For measurement of key constructs in the study, we have adopted items from the relevant literature. Nevertheless, there were minor wording changes in order to reflect the focal service of the present study (i.e., university education service). The full measurement model showed a satisfactory level of fit. There was evidence of reliability as well as convergent and discriminant validity. For the structural analysis, results indicate that the model fits well. Seven of the eight hypotheses were supported. The findings of the present study show that service organizations have to increase rewards program and give more autonomy to customers in order to raise perceived organizational support. Furthermore, they need to develop the reputation in order to promote customer commitment and identification with a service organization. Customers are then more likely to exert citizenship behavior toward service organizations. In this regard, service organization can improve performance without additional costs.In Study 2, we test whether customer experience moderates the relationships between customer citizenship behavior and its antecedents. The results indicate that the high experience group shows stronger relationships between them. This implies that a service organization has to manage customers differently according to their experience level. We have found the antecedent of customer citizenship behavior, especially focusing on the exchange relationships between service organization and customers. We have also shown the moderating effects of customer experience on the relationships. The results support the importance of customer management.

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