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[학술저널]

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UCI(KEPA) : I410-ECN-0101-2009-609-014719346

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Metallic craft works from the Goryeo Dynasty generally are engraved with information related to the manufacturing such as date, prayer and weight as well as the social standing and name of the manufacturer. A fairly many craftsmen in metals have been identified until now.
Among Goryeo craftsmen, Han Jung-seo (韓仲敍) who made temple bells and temple gongs is known to have been most active from the beginning to the middle of the 13th century. He started his career as a minor guard of Sunyeong Palace but was promoted high up to a senior official of the 7th rank called Byeoljang (別將) Dongjeong (同正) at Musangae (武散階). His life history provided a decisive clue to the study of the social standing of cast-metal craftsmen in his days. Except Han Jung-seo's, there is no work remained that shows the genealogy of the same manufacturer. However, craftsmen recorded in Goryeo metallic craft works are largely grouped into three classes.
Private craftsmen are general professional metal-cast craftsmen, who were recorded simply as 'Craftsman (匠, 匠人)' or by name. Private craftsmen in the Goryeo Dynasty were professional grown from half-agricultural and half-industrial domestic business at farm villages, employed craftsmen who had been aristocratic craftsmen in the royal court, or independent craftsmen from naturalized. In addition, every year these private craftsmen paid tributes in the form of regular tributes and special tributes in addition to being on duty as provided by the government, Among them. some engaged in military service as members of so called 'Craftsmen Unit (工匠隊)'.
Government craftsmen means those who had definite official title such as Daejang (大匠)' or Bujang (副匠)' in front of their names. Daejang and Bujang were definitely government craftsmen according to a record in Sikwhaji (食貨誌) of Goryeosa (高麗史). "武散皆 田十七結 大匠副匠雜匠人, 御前部樂伴樂人." As the record, Daejang or Bujang belonged to Musangae(武散階), receiving 17 gyeals (結) of field as payment from the government, Craftsmen were granted posts of Dongjeong such as Jungrangjang Dongjeong (中郞將同正, 5th rank). Rangjang Dongjeong (郞將同正, 6th rank). Byeoljang Dongjeong (別將同正, 7th rank) and Sanwon Dongjeong (散員同正, 8th rank) according to their rank in Musangye. That is, government craftsmen used the official title of Daejang as well as the honorary title of Dongjeong, and treatment for them was the same as that for regular officials although equivalent payment was not offered.
There are not many records or evidence on Buddhist priest craftsmen. The most definite example of Buddhist priest craftsman is Metal-cast Dongryang (棟粱) Priest Gyeongjin (鏡珍)' who was recorded with 'Craftsman' on Seonak-sa temple bell (1066). He is considered to be a Buddhist priest craftsman who cooperated with private craftsmen for metal casting, Buddhist priest craftsmen who belonged to temples and engaged in various technical job in this way appears to have the same official title as government craftsmen, and it is assumed that a fairly large number of priest craftsmen might participated in manufacturing temple bells, temple gongs and incense vessels.
Mongolian invasion and resistance for around 40 years from 1231 to 1270 at the beginning of the late Goryeo Dynasty was a disastrous accident that brought about comprehensive impoverishment to all areas including economy and society as well as arts of the Goryeo Dynasty. Although some areas steadily continued to inherit traditional techniques and create works, metallic craft works from the period between 1250 and the end of the 13th century are significantly rare compared to other periods. The rapid decrease of demand for metallic craft works and the degeneration of casting techruque during the period from the late 13th century to the early 14th century in the late Goryeo Dynasty hints the situation of the collapsing craftsmen society of the late Goryeo Dynasty resulting from wars. Such a situation is clearly evidenced by temple bells. There are only a small number of temple bells from the early 14th century. Furthermore they are featureless and unattractive small bells such as Musul (戊戌) temple bell in 1298 or Jichi 4th Year temple bell (1324). which are clearly distinguished from bells in the 13th century.
As discussed above, the traditional casting technology and the craftsmen society could not escape a rapid collapse after wars in the late Goryeo Dynasty. but the adversity is believed to have provided an opportunity to accept actively new styles imported from Yuan Dynasty.

목차

Ⅰ. 고려 匠人의 계통과 신분
Ⅱ. 高麗 後期의 匠人社會
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