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[학술저널]

  • 학술저널

本地, 畵幅, 奉安에 대한 問題

박은경(동아대학교)

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초록

Matters of style and iconography, patrons and donors are key issues in the study of Goryeo Buddhist painting. But in this paper I would like to talk about some of the issues on the periphery, examining three aspects in particular that have always interested me: the weave of the silk used for the paintings, the width of the woven silk, and the enshrinement of the finished work.
First, it has been confirmed that all of the 160-odd Goryeo Buddhist paintings known to be extant were painted on silk. In almost all cases, the silk fabric is woven in plain weave, with a space after every two warp threads. Compared to ordinary plainweave, which has evenly-space dwarp threads,this weave enables greater expression of depth and texture when colors are applied on the front or the back of the silk. Second, most Goryeo Buddhist paintings are painted on a single width of silk. This gives rise to several questions, such as “What does this imply in terms of the loom width, and what impact did it have on the composition of the painting?” Collating the figures on silk widths revealed that they varied in size from around 40cm wide to extra large widths up to 250cm wide. According to the widths the paintings could be divided into five groups, A-D and E for special cases. Analysis of these groups indicated that the iconography and composition of Goryeo Buddhist paintings were influenced by the size of the woven silk, and that pointed to the possibility that the court office called Aekjeongguk was involved in the production of the larger works falling under groups C, D, and etc.
Last, it is impossible not to be curious about the system of enshrinement of Goryeo Buddhist paintings. As is well known, relics were enshrined with the sculptures of Buddhas and bodhisattvas. In this light, did a similar system of enshrining votive offerings exist for paintings? It is believed that Buddhist paintings were generally commissioned by the royal family or members of the ruling class to hang in private shrines, but do we have any concrete knowledge of where the paintings were really enshrined?
Taking the example of the painting of Amitabha preserved at Sh?b?-ji in Kyoto, Japan, which first suggested the idea that votive offerings were made with paintings, the issue of the enshrining of votive offerings and the way they would have been enshrined was examined. In addition, examination of documents from the 13th and 14th centuries revealed that Goryeo Buddhist paintings were enshrined in various places such as Buddhist halls on palace grounds, royal shrines, shrines big and small near the homes or ancestral graveyards of powerful families and officials of the ruling class, built to pray for the repose of the dead or pray for blessings, temple halls, and private shrines in the homes of officials. Special cases include Mangwondang, a Goryeo royal residence in Yuan. The places of enshrinement were studied in connection with the size of paintings.
This paper hence represents a departure from the usual subjects of iconography and style of Goryeo Buddhist paintings and is a preliminary approach to the subject. If we look at the issues surrounding Goryeo Buddhist painting, that is, the issues in the margins, at some point the resonance will be felt at the center and it is hoped that this will stimulate greater interest in Goryeo Buddhist painting and inspire young researchers to achieve various outcomes.

목차

Ⅰ. 머리말
Ⅱ. 고려불화의 本地: 絹織物의 조직
Ⅲ. 고려불화의 畵幅과 構圖
Ⅳ. 고려불화의 봉안
Ⅴ. 맺음말
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